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森林公路的维修与养护

森林公路的使用寿命有着重要的现实和经济后果。

All forest roads will experience wear and tear during harvesting operations and it is important to repair them as quickly as possible.同样,收割作业之间的道路维护将保护道路并将环境影响降至最低。亚博体育平台是黑彩

但是,区分道路维修和维护很重要:

道路修缮涉及将道路设施恢复到以前令人满意的状态。通常在收割作业期间或之后需要进行此项工作。Heavy machine traffic and timber haulage are the main cause of road damage.The condition of the road before harvesting operations will greatly influence the incidence and severity of subsequent damage.

道路养护涉及保持目前未使用的道路处于可用状态。Maintenance works are best carried out during the summer months and should be ongoing with particular attention to the maintenance of drains and culverts.通常通过保持竣工道路的标准来实现令人满意的维护/维修。

维修保养的主要要素

Drainage. The condition of the soil beneath the road will largely determine the strength of the road.必须在道路附近设置一个干净的排水沟,以确保地下水位尽可能低。必须在干燥的天气下对路边排水沟进行清洁和/或重新塑形,以尽量减少侵蚀和沉积对环境的潜在影响。亚博体育平台是黑彩修建森林公路时所需的15米树木净空宽度旨在最大限度地减少树木生长时的遮荫效应以及对道路排水的影响。在重新造林期间,地面准备工作不得干扰现有的路边排水系统,这一点很重要。饱和道路的强度小于干路强度的一半!

Surface. Road carriageways are usually the most expensive element of forest road construction and therefore good maintenance of the surface is very important.The most common repair and maintenance issues on road carriageways are:

  • 坑洼坑洞的存在,more commonly found on flat sections of road,除了路面材料的实际损失外,对道路的保护不是特别有害的情况。However,重型坑洞会增加使用者的安全风险,并对车辆造成潜在损坏,这是不可接受的。坑洞通过重新放坡进行修复,只有在特殊情况下,才需要每年对道路重新放坡一次以上。
  • Camber. An adequate camber ensures that rainfall quickly drains from the road surface into a roadside drain.路拱度差会导致路面严重侵蚀。Good camber is achieved by re-grading ideally in tandem with repair of potholes and/or removal of vegetation. During re-grading care must be taken to ensure that the graded material does not enter side drains or block roadside edges.After re-grading it is necessary to compact the road surface to prevent the infiltration of water and to provide strength.
  • 植被由于缺乏使用,森林公路很可能会变得过度生长,并且随着时间的推移,这可能会通过侵蚀和强度损失破坏其使用。如何补救取决于计划的道路使用情况。作为主要森林街区的主要路线的森林道路将证明每3至5年通过重新分级和压实控制植被是合理的。在每4-5年进行一次采伐作业的单一森林道路上,化学植被控制可能是一种更具成本效益的方法。

路面厚度. The original constructed road pavement thickness must be preserved otherwise excessive rutting will occur with potentially serious collapse requiring a total and expensive reconstruction. Loss of pavement thickness is most commonly caused by heavy rain,交通量增加,traffic speed and usage by harvesting traffic.如果出现路面厚度损失,可能需要用碎石或经批准的集料对道路进行重新金属化处理。Compaction of the material being spread is important to prevent dispersal by vehicular traffic.在森林公路上通过收割交通工具行驶,即应避免使用处理器和转发器。

影响森林公路状况的其他因素:

  • Winter conditions. Roads that are thawing following heavy frost or covered with snow can be damaged by heavy vehicles.这应该避免。
  • 超载. The various Road Traffic Acts prescribe the legal loads with which all vehicles must comply.Forest roads are designed to carry the same loads as public roads but the effect of use by excessive loads is probably more evident on forest roads.由于超载而造成的损坏的修复成本可能很高。

Regular inspection of roads during harvesting and periodic inspection at other times,例如after storms etc.有必要确定问题并计划补救措施。