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亚博体育官网无法取款在冬小麦上进行的TEGASC杀菌剂试验的产量响应约为3.0 t/ha,比杀菌剂成本高出很多,改善了谷物和秸秆的质量。

合理的杀菌剂计划将在该地区花费190欧元/公顷。https://www.亚博体育官网无法取款teagasc.ie/publications/2019/crops-costs-and-returns-2019.phpHowever this may be reduced by 20% for late sown crops,where disease pressure from Septoria and Eyespot is low and where disease resistant varieties are sown.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques should be used where possible.For more information on IPM visit:害虫综合治理

壳孢属

  • 中隔是爱尔兰最重要的小麦病害。
  • 在Teagasc试验中,一个良好的杀菌剂项目每公顷产出3.0-5.0吨。亚博体育官网无法取款
  • However some strains of septoria are now resistant to some of the main fungicides.

霉病

  • 霉变最明显的是密集的,老叶易感品种,如化身。
  • 似乎白叶脓疱
  • 吗啉对小麦霉变有很强的抑制作用。
  • 包括含有第一杀真菌剂的吗啉,即叶4(GS 31)或叶3(T1)

眼点

  • 在基于犁的系统中,早期播种作物的风险最高。
  • 评估作物在GS 31时的视觉症状,并在T1时进行治疗。
  • 对眼斑杀菌剂的平均产量反应0.4 t/ha(hgca-高风险部位)
  • 由于谷茬中的拮抗因素,免耕作物的风险较低。

Yellow Rust

  • 在某些易感品种中,偶尔会发生黄锈病暴发。
  • 它能在干燥条件下迅速传播。
  • 在检测到的情况下,使用strobulurin+/-a吗啉进行控制。
  • 用三唑和SDHI杀菌剂也可以在叶片3号时刻控制黄锈病。

冬小麦病害防治策略

Timing 靶病 产品选择(价格/公顷)

Leaf 4 (T0)

GS30

壳孢属

(+/- Rust,霉变)

Chlorothalonil* 1.0L

(+/-strob或吗啉)

叶3(T1)

(third last leaf emerged)

DateLate April

Septoria &Eyespot

百菌清1.0升

+

Triazole + SDHI (80-100% rate)

+Mildew? Mildewcide ½ - ¾ rate

旗叶(T2)

GS 39)

DateMid May

Septoria?Rust?

百菌清1.0升

+

SDHI+三唑(80-100%率)

(See appendix 11 for other options)

Mildew?+ 包括防霉剂1/2-3/4

Flowering (T3)

GS 51-60

Date六月中旬初

Septoria?Rust?Fusarium?

三唑80-100% rate

低压部位:美康唑,tebuconazole.

+/-strobilurin(50-80%比率)

+/-百菌清

Mildew?+ 含防霉剂半价

冬小麦喷施定时理论基础与研究成果

Leaf 4

  • 产量反应:无-有助于叶片3的更好时机。
  • Timing: apply with PGR/onto leaf 4
  • 建议:1.0 l/ha百菌清(+/-strob,用于生锈;霉变)
  • 注:添加三唑没有好处,但增加了发生耐药性的风险。
  • Add a strob if rust is problematic or morpholine if mildew is prevalent.

Leaf 3

  • Yield response: (2012-2014 亚博体育官网无法取款Teagasc experiments 0.5 t/ha)
  • Timing: Apply onto final leaf 3 fully emerged (~ gs 32).
  • 建议:1.0 l/ha百菌清+80-100%(SDHI+三唑混合液)
  • 注意:此时也要检查是否有眼斑和霉菌。

The importance of identifying leaf 3 for septoria control in winter wheat.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C1NTqQJ-HS8

了解如何解剖植物以找到叶3。Protect leaf 3 from disease and this ensures that leaf 1 and 2 as also protected.These are the key leaves for the grain,they need to capture as much sunlight as possible to convert into carbohydrates

Flag Leaf

  • Yield response: (2012-2014 亚博体育官网无法取款Teagasc experiments 1.7 t/ha)
  • Timing: Apply onto flag leaf fully emerged (~ gs 39).见以上表
  • Recommendations: 1.0 l/ha chlorothalonil + 80 - 100 % (SDHI + triazole mix)
  • 这是冬小麦试验中最好的喷雾剂。

Head spray

  • Yield response: (2012-2014 亚博体育官网无法取款Teagasc experiments 0.5 t/ha)
  • Timing: Apply at start of flowering.
  • Recommendations: Fusarium & Septoria active triazole (See table above).
  • The yield response can be low in low disease pressure years.

For further information see Steven Kildea's presentation at the National Tillage Conference 2015 available from在这里

Winter Barley Disease Control

虽然疾病控制对大麦很重要,但对杀菌剂计划的反应不如小麦那么大,typically 1.0.1.5 tonnes per ha.亚博体育官网无法取款Teagasc trials from 2010-2012 show that a 3 spray program (< gs 30,gs 31-32 & gs 39-45) gives the best response from fungicides.

肉孢子菌属

  • Rynchosporium leaf scald is one of the most diseases in barley
  • 在凉爽潮湿条件下发育
  • Early sowing of susceptible varieties increases risk
  • Triazoles e.g prothioconazole have good activity on rynchosporium.

网斑病

  • Net blotch can be a very destructive disease of barley
  • 它可以杀死分蘖,从而降低产量。
  • 它以叶子上的网状图案而与众不同
  • strobulurins和triazoles具有良好的控制作用。

Powdery Mildew

  • Develops in warm humid conditions 12oC+
  • Can reduce yields by up to 10%
  • Morpholines give good control

Ramularia

  • Typical symptoms of ramularia are small brown rectangular lesions surrounded by a yellow halo
  • 当作物受到压力时,会形成枝状体。
  • Ramularia is resistant to strobulurin fungicides
  • 百菌清提供最佳控制

下图是过去四年橡树公园在全国各地进行的试验。它显示了对不同杀菌剂定时和喷雾组合的产量响应。

Key messages from the trial

  • 2010-2013年的试验表明,三个时间点;< GS 30,gs 31-32 & gs 39-45 give the best response from fungicides.
  • 两种杀菌剂应用(GS 31-32和GS 39/45)给出了最佳响应。然而,在三种杀菌剂的应用中,疾病挑战性在早季很高,可以预期有更高的产量反应。
  • 在GS 39/45处施用最终杀菌剂,在GS 59处施用杀菌剂,whether as a single application or in as part of a fungicide program.
  • Waiting to apply the final fungicide until the head fully emerges gives a poor response to fungicides.

Timing 靶病 产品(每公顷)

Tillering

GS 25-30

林霍

网斑病

Brown RustMildew

Triazole ½ rate +

(红色)rate Strob/Morpholine)

(B锈-条纹,morpholine and triazoles give effective control)

茎伸长

GS 31-33

T2

Eyespot?

Rhyncho?

网斑?

Mildew?

Ramularia?

1/2 rate Triazole + SDHI or Strob

+

百菌清1.0升(如果作物中存在分枝杆菌)

Flag leaf/booting

GS 39-49

T3

Rhyncho?

网斑?

Ramularia?

Rust?

百菌清1.0升(All mixes)

+

1/2 Triazole +/- SDHI + Strob

Tillering spray (T1): Early disease can cause tiller loss at a critical time for yield formation.

用高浓度的RunnCHO喷洒作物,用合适的产品,如前硫代康唑(脯氨酸)来保护新的生长,并包括非三唑作为抗病策略。在SAC和TEAASC试验中,分蘖喷雾已达0.33 t/hA反应。亚博体育官网无法取款早期观察六行品种和杂交品种对褐锈病的影响。

茎延长(t2):在茎延长期间应使用综合杀菌剂混合物(GS 32-37)。Best responses will be achieved when applying closer to gs 32.A PGR can be added to this timing

旗叶/靴叶(t3):在旗叶至抽穗阶段,一种广谱杀菌剂(如三唑+SDHI混合物)是合适的。包括所有品种的百菌清。

冬季燕麦病防治

There are two main diseases in oats namely mildew and crown rust.

霉病

  • Mildew is the most important disease in oats
  • 它会影响产量和质量
  • Variety selection can play an important role in reducing the risk
  • 特定的防霉剂可以很好地控制

Crown Rust

  • Crown rust generally develops under warm conditions approx.20OC
  • It infects the leaves,leaf sheaths and the panicles
  • It can reduce yield by 10-20%
  • 三唑与strobs或sdhi化学混合可以很好地控制

有关单个产品的更多详细信息,timings and mixes contact your local 亚博体育官网无法取款Teagasc advisor.

鉴定3号叶在冬小麦中隔控制中的重要性

了解如何解剖植物以找到叶3。Protect leaf 3 from disease and this ensures that leaf 1 and 2 as also protected.These are the key leaves for the grain,they need to capture as much sunlight as possible to convert into carbohydrates