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Herd Illthrift

Herd Illthrift and Poor Performance (Growth,Milk Yield or Fertility) in Cattle

CAUSES OF ILLTHRIFT:

There are many causes of herd illthrift/poor performance/weight loss.MINERAL deficiency is NOT the most likely cause.

MAJOR CAUSES COMMENTS
1 Restricted water intake Poor supply,contaminated water
2 Undernutrition Poor grassland management (under or over-stocking);poor winter feeding;inadequate intake/quality of protein,energy;ketosis
3 Parasitism Lungs (hoose);gut (Ostertagia,Nematodirus,Coccidia);liver (fluke);skin (mange,lice,ticks,keds,fly strike);brain (gid)
4 Infection Current,or in early life,especially chronic infection: viral (influenza;BVD/Mucosal disease/IBR;rotavirus;Corona virus;parvovirus;adenovirus;orf);bacterial (Salmonella,Johne's disease,Listeria,Leptospira,Pasteurella,Haemophilus,TB,actinobacillosis,actinomycosis);protozoal (Coccidia,Cryptosporidia,Babesia,Eperythrozoon);mycoplasmal;fungal (Mucor,Aspergillus,ringworm,zygomycosis) etc
5 Severe mineral deficiency P,Cu,Co,Se,I,and rarely Ca,Mg,Zn,Mn,Na
6 Severe vitamin deficiency B12,thiamine (CCN),and rarely A,D3,E
LESS COMMON CAUSES
7 Poisoning/intoxication (especially chronic) 细菌(E。coli,C.pyogenes etc);fungal (ergot,aflatoxin etc);plant (cottonseed (gossypol),brassica,acorn,cyanogenetic glucosides,alkaloids (especially ragwort),bracken,oxalate,fescue);ruminal lactic acidosis (grain,molasses poisoning);chemical (herbicides,fungicides,pesticides,side effect of antibiotic or therapeutic drugs (especially if over-dosed),ammonia/urea,nitrate,petroleum products,antifreeze,mineral compounds (As,Pb,F,Mg,Na,Cu,Co,Se,I,Zn,Mn);water toxicity etc);algal etc
8 Pain/inflammation Lameness (foot rot,sole abscess,laminitis,arthritis,osteomyelitis,fractures,dislocations);pain / inflammation elsewhere (sore mouth / teeth / gum / tongue;pharyngeal lesions etc;pleuritis,peritonitis,reticulitis,endocarditis,pericarditis;mastitis,sinusitis,meningitis,encephalitis,castration,dehorning)
9 Internal disorders (especially lesions present from early life) Lung (hoose,fog fever,abscess,感染,pneumonic lesions from early life);liver (abscess,liver disease);gastrointestinal tract (ruminal lactic acidosis,vagal indigestion,ruminal or omasal impaction;scour/gastroenteritis,winter dysentery,bloat,abomasal ulcer,bowel strangulation);kidney/bladder (inflammation,abscess,urolithiasis);abscess/sepsis (lungs,liver,kidneys,mastitis,peritonitis,pharyngeal injury)
RARE CAUSES
10 Nutritional (deficiency of protein/energy,Cu,Co,Fe);parasitic (lice,fluke,worms etc);haemolytic (bacterial,protozoal,viral);aplastic / toxic (plant poisoning (kale,bracken etc);haemorrhagic (warfarin);immunomediated等
11 Allergy Lungs,gut,skin,immunomediated
12 Immunosuppression Toxic,viral;neonatal agammaglobulinaemia (insufficient colostrum in neonates)
13 Genetics Genetic defects,mannosidosis,poor genetic potential).
4 Fever See infection,intoxication,allergy
15 Cancer Lymphosarcoma,leucosis

REMEDIAL ACTIONS:

1.IDENTIFY AND CORRECT THE CAUSAL FACTORS (see above),especially poor water intake/quality and basic faults of nutrition,poor control of parasites and infection.

2.MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS?: If herd levels of P,Cu,Se,I or Co are low or very low on blood test,it is advisable to increase their supply.

A quick way to check if mineral deficiency is involved is to give a good mineral supplement high in trace-elements.See the enclosed notes on mineral supplements.If the 亚博体育官网无法取款animals do not show a good response within 3-6 weeks,the cause is unlikely to be mineral deficiency.

If minerals are only marginally deficient in blood,further supplementation with those minerals is unlikely to improve growth rate.

Author: Phil Rogers MRCVS Grange Research Centre,Dunsany,Co.Meath,Ireland 1997